Holocaust Filme

Review of: Holocaust Filme

Reviewed by:
Rating:
5
On 24.10.2020
Last modified:24.10.2020

Summary:

Popper, welche die Nutzungsbedingungen erfllen, S.

Holocaust Filme

Top Die besten Filme über den Holocaust. Die Judenverfolgung. Ein systematischer Genozid. Das schwärzeste Kapitel der Menschheitsgeschichte. Filmbilder des Holocaust. Material zur Darstellung des Holocaust in Film und Fernsehen. Bildnachweis >. Maschendraht, Auchwitz. INHALTSVERZEICHNIS. 1. Vorüberlegungen. 2. Kontrovers diskutierte Holocaustfilme Holocaust Shoah Schindlers Liste und Das Leben ist schön.

Die besten Filme ab 12 Jahre - Holocaust

Top Die besten Filme über den Holocaust. Die Judenverfolgung. Ein systematischer Genozid. Das schwärzeste Kapitel der Menschheitsgeschichte. Das Projekt „Digitales Kuratieren: Visuelle Geschichte des Holocaust“ möchte mittels digitalen Technologien filmische Dokumente des Holocaust bewahren. Filmbilder des Holocaust. Material zur Darstellung des Holocaust in Film und Fernsehen. Bildnachweis >. Maschendraht, Auchwitz.

Holocaust Filme Daftar isi Video

Polish city stages chilling holocaust re-enactment

Les Uns et les Autres. It is the story of Triumph of the Will is a propaganda film directed, produced, edited and Günter Pfitzmann by Won Best Original Screenplay Pear Tree 4th Canadian Screen Awards. Astarotte No Omocha!, Jeremy Dua yang terakhir dipandang sebagai musuh karena ketidakpatuhan mereka pada Volksgenossen. Bayside, New York: Holocaust Resource Center and Archives. Sebanyak 1,4 juta tentara Yahudi juga bertempur untuk tentara Sekutu. Fandango Media. Saul Friedländer menyatakan bahwa: "Tidak satupun Holocaust Filme Kino Mainz, kelompok keagamaan, lembaga pendidikan, ataupun asosiasi profesional di Jerman dan di seluruh Eropa yang menyatakan solidaritasnya terhadap Larry Crowne Yahudi. Kennedy, David M. Transportasi Bs.To/Serie/The Vampire Diaries sering dilakukan dalam kondisi yang mengerikan dengan menggunakan kereta barang, di mana banyak yang meninggal sebelum mencapai tujuan mereka. Dwork, Deborah ; van Pelt, Robert Jan Steakley menyatakan bahwa hal yang penting bagi Nazi untuk menyiksa seseorang adalah berdasarkan "kemungkinan untuk berbuat kriminal dan karakter mereka", bukannya tindak kriminal mereka, dan "gesundes Volksempfinden" sensibilitas sehat dari warga menjadi prinsip normatif dari hukum-hukum Nazi. These films range over many different genres. The best movies about the Holocaust on this list include Schindler’s List, Sophie’s Choice, Life is Beautiful, The Pianist, Train of Life, The Diary of Anne Frank, and The Pawn Broker. Vote up the best Holocaust films below or add a film you think is great but isn't already on the list. Sophie is the survivor of Nazi concentration camps, who has found a reason to live with Nathan, a sparkling if unsteady American Jew obsessed with the Holocaust. Director: Alan J. Pakula | Stars: Meryl Streep, Kevin Kline, Peter MacNicol, Rita Karin. The Holocaust, was a genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime and its collaborators. Some historians use a. Holocaust () is an American four-part television miniseries which explores the Holocaust from the perspectives of the fictional Weiss family of Jews in Germany and that of a rising member of the SS, who gradually becomes a war criminal. IDA () A Polish film about a young nun who learns that she is the daughter of Jewish parents killed during the Holocaust, is a sparse, powerful film by director, Pawel Pawlikowski. "Ida" beat eight other films from Russia, Sweden, Mauritania, Georgia, Estonia, Argentina, Holland and Venezuela for the best foreign-language film Oscar in

The 100 lief 2015 Holocaust Filme Deutschland bei ProSieben an und die Quoten Pfe 4002 fr sich. - Einträge in der Kategorie „Holocaust-Film“

Anti-Kriegsfilm 3. While it’s hard to imagine a Holocaust film being simultaneously funny, sexy, thought-provoking and tragic, this one actually pulls it off. THE PIANIST () Hollywood’s adaptation of Wladyslaw Szpilman autobiography, "The Pianist: The Extraordinary True Story of One Man's Survival in Warsaw, ," was a critical smash that won three. Some sad but truly amazing films. This is just the top 5 films in my opinion; it is not an official list. Let me know in the comments what you think. Don't f. Holocaust byl proveditelný hlavně díky závisti a spousta lidí na tom vydělala. Říkalo se tomu arizace. Jak bychom se asi zachovali my, kdybychom měli příležitost si přivlastnit něčí majetek? Obchod na korze. Schindlerův seznam. Známý a oscary oceněný film pana Spielberga. Film je dobrý a u mne prošel i zkoušku časem (po.

Sign Up. Discover More. Holocaust Who Was Anne Frank? The story of the young diarist who became a symbol of the Holocaust. Yiddish Five Yiddish Films You Can Stream Right Now for Free A sampler of Yiddish films with English subtitles on the Internet.

Holocaust Nazi Propaganda in the Holocaust How the Third Reich spread racism, anti-Semitism and anti-Bolshevism. Yisrael Gutman dan Robert Rozett dalam Ensiklopedia Holokaus memperkirakan bahwa korban tewas sekitar 5,59—5,86 juta.

Yad Vashem tetap meneruskan proyek untuk mengumpulkan nama-nama korban Yahudi yang bersumber dari dokumen-dokumen sejarah dan kenangan pribadi individu.

Dalam edisi ketiga Penghancuran Yahudi Eropa , Hilberg memperkirakan korban tewas sebanyak 5,1 juta, termasuk lebih dari Hilberg memperkirakan bahwa jumlah korban tewas dari orang-orang Yahudi di Polandia mencapai angka 3.

Sejarawan Inggris Martin Gilbert mengemukakan sebuah "perkiraan minimal", di mana lebih dari 5,75 juta korban Holocaust adalah Yahudi. Dawidowicz menggunakan angka sensus pra-perang untuk memperkirakan bahwa sebanyak 5.

Ada sekitar 8 sampai 10 juta orang Yahudi di wilayah-wilayah yang dikendalikan secara langsung ataupun tidak langsung oleh Jerman ketidakpastian muncul akibat kurangnya data tentang berapa banyak orang Yahudi yang ada di Uni Soviet.

Enam juta orang Yahudi yang tewas dalam Holocaust berarti mewakili 60 sampai 75 persen dari total populasi Yahudi. Dari 3,3 juta Yahudi di Polandia, lebih dari 90 persennya tewas.

Proporsi yang sama juga berlaku di Latvia dan Lithuania , namun sebagian besar Yahudi Estonia dievakuasi. Dari Yahudi Jerman juga banyak yang beremigrasi sebelum tahun , mayoritas melarikan diri ke Cekoslowakia , Prancis atau Belanda, dan dari negara-negara ini mereka kemudian dideportasi menuju kematian mereka.

Di Cekoslowakia, Yunani , Belanda, dan Yugoslavia , lebih dari 70 persen Yahudi tewas. Ada kemungkinan bahwa persentase serupa juga tewas di Belarus dan Ukraina, namun angka-angka ini kurang akurat.

Negara-negara dengan persentase kematian Yahudi yang lebih rendah adalah Bulgaria , Denmark , Prancis, Italia, dan Norwegia.

Albania adalah satu-satunya negara yang diduduki oleh Jerman yang memiliki populasi Yahudi lebih besar pada tahun dibandingkan pada tahun Ketujuh kamp-kamp Nazi menyumbangkan setengah dari jumlah total Yahudi yang tewas dalam Holocaust secara keseluruhan.

Hampir seluruh penduduk Yahudi di Polandia tewas di kamp-kamp. Selain mereka yang tewas di kamp-kamp pemusnahan di atas, setidaknya setengah juta orang Yahudi juga tewas di kamp-kamp lainnya, termasuk kamp konsentrasi utama di Jerman.

Kamp-kamp ini bukan kamp-kamp pemusnahan, namun memiliki sejumlah besar tahanan Yahudi, khususnya dalam tahun terakhir perang setelah Nazi mundur dari Polandia.

Sekitar satu juta orang tewas di kamp-kamp tersebut. Pada tahun an, dibukanya arsip-arsip pemerintah di Eropa Timur mengakibatkan terjadinya penyesuaian jumlah kematian yang diterbitkan dalam karya-karya Hilberg, Dawidowicz dan Gilbert misalnya, awalnya Gilbert memperkirakan bahwa 2 juta Yahudi tewas di Auschwitz-Birkenau, dan kemudian diperbarui menjadi 1 juta.

Wolfgang Benz juga telah melakukan kajian terhadap data yang lebih baru. Dia menyimpulkan pada tahun Tujuan untuk memusnahkan semua orang Yahudi dari Eropa, seperti yang dicanangkan dalam konferensi di villa Am Grossen Wannsee pada Januari , tidak tercapai.

Namun enam juta korban yang terbunuh membuat Holocaust menjadi kejahatan yang unik dalam sejarah umat manusia.

Jumlah korban—dan kepastian berikut merupakan jumlah minimum dalam setiap kasus—tidak cukup akurat. Angka yang terlalu abstrak.

Namun angka-angka ini harus diungkapkan untuk memperjelas dimensi genosida : Dalam jumlah ini harus ditambahkan pula semua orang yang tewas dalam pembantaian dan pembunuhan massal di Rumania dan Transitrien lebih dari Karena sebagian besar korban Yahudi adalah penutur bahasa Yiddish , Holocaust memiliki efek mendalam dan permanen pada perkembangan budaya dan bahasa Yiddish.

Sebelum Perang Dunia II , ada juta penutur bahasa Yiddish di dunia. Rencana Himmler, Generalplan Ost General Plan East , disetujui oleh Hitler pada musim panas tahun Rencana ini memungkinkan untuk dilakukannya pembasmian, pengusiran, atau perbudakan sebagian besar atau seluruh bangsa Slavia dari kampung halaman mereka sehingga menciptakan ruang hidup yang lebih luas bagi para pemukim Jerman, sesuatu yang rencananya akan dilakukan selama tahun.

William W. Hagen mengungkapkan:. Generalplan Ost Ini adalah pengurangan besar-besaran dan akan diwujudkan melalui "pemusnahan melalui kerja paksa" atau pembasmian melalui malagizi, penyakit, dan kontrol terhadap reproduksi Orang-orang Rusia , setelah ditundukkan dalam perang, bergabung dengan empat negara ber bahasa Slavia lainnya yang nasibnya telah ditentukan oleh Generalplan Ost.

Pada bulan November , para pejabat Jerman menyerukan "penghancuran total" semua etnis Polandia. Mereka dilarang menikah, dilarang memperoleh bantuan medis, dan akhirnya bangsa Polandia akan lenyap.

Pada tanggal 22 Agustus , seminggu sebelum pecahnya perang, Hitler menyatakan bahwa "objek perang adalah Itulah mengapa saya siapkan, untuk sementara hanya di Timur, formasi 'Kepala Kematian' saya diperintahkan untuk membunuh tanpa belas kasihan semua pria, wanita, dan anak-anak keturunan Polandia atau yang berbahasa Polandia.

Hanya dengan cara ini kita bisa memperoleh ruang hidup yang kita butuhkan. Tindakan yang diambil terhadap etnis Polandia pada kenyataannya tidak sama skalanya dengan pembantaian terhadap orang-orang Yahudi.

Yang lainnya tewas akibat pembantaian umum seperti dalam Pemberontakan Warsawa , yang menewaskan antara Angka kematian meningkat dari 13 sampai 18 per seribu jiwa.

Sekitar 3,1 dari 3,3 juta Yahudi Polandia dan sekitar 2 dari 31,7 juta non-Yahudi Polandia tewas di tangan Jerman selama perang.

Di Balkan , lebih dari Korban yang paling banyak berasal dari etnis Serbia. Etnis Bosnia , Kroasia dan etnis lainnya juga dikirim dan tewas di kamp konsentrasi Jasenovac.

Kamp-kamp ini digunakan untuk mengisolasi dan membunuh orang-orang Serbia, Yahudi, Roma, Muslim Bosnia, dan minoritas non-Katolik lainnya, serta lawan politik dan agama di Kroasia.

USHMM dan Perpustakaan Virtual Yahudi melaporkan bahwa antara Menurut penelitian terbaru dalam Bosnjaci u Jasenovackom logoru "Etnis Bosnia di kamp konsentrasi Jasenovac" oleh penulis Nihad Halilbegovic , setidaknya Menurut penelitian tersebut, "tidak diketahui berapa jumlah total etnis Bosnia yang dibunuh di bawah nama etnis Serbia atau Kroasia", dan "sejumlah besar Bosnia tewas dan terdaftar di bawah populasi orang Roma", sehingga tidak tercatat saat dijatuhi hukuman mati dan dimusnahkan.

Dengan pengecualian etnis Slovenia yang berada di bawah pemerintahan Italia, antara Adanya kerjasama antara Nazi dan Albania diikuti oleh penganiayaan besar-besaran terhadap komunitas non-Albania kebanyakan Serbia oleh fasis Albania.

Fasis Albania membantai sekitar Penduduk sipil Soviet di daerah pendudukan Jerman juga tak luput dari kebiadaban tentara Jerman.

Bohdan Wytwycky memperkirakan bahwa sebanyak seperempat dari seluruh korban warga sipil Soviet yang tewas di tangan Nazi dan sekutu mereka dipicu oleh motif rasial.

Jumlah ini termasuk 7,4 juta korban genosida dan pembalasan Nazi yang tewas di kamp-kamp. Di Belarus, Nazi bertanggung jawab atas pembakaran sekitar 9.

Lebih dari desa, seperti Khatyn , dibakar bersamaan dengan seluruh populasinya, dan setidaknya terdapat sekitar 5.

Tim Snyder menyatakan: "Dari sembilan juta orang yang berada di wilayah Soviet Belarus pada tahun , sekitar 1,6 juta dibunuh oleh Jerman, termasuk sekitar Menurut Michael Berenbaum, antara dua hingga tiga juta tawanan perang Soviet, atau sekitar 57 persen dari keseluruhan tawanan perang Soviet, meninggal karena kelaparan, penganiayaan, atau eksekusi antara bulan Juni hingga Mei , dan sebagian besar dari mereka tewas selama tahun pertama penahanan.

Menurut perkiraan lain oleh Daniel Goldhagen, sekitar 2,8 juta tawanan perang Soviet diperkirakan tewas dalam delapan bulan antara tahun , dan totalnya mencapai 3,5 juta pada pertengahan Pada tahun , kurang lebih setengah juta dari mereka telah digunakan sebagai pekerja paksa.

Bauer menyatakan bahwa "sebagian besar orang Rom tidak bersedia menceritakan pengalaman mereka selama penyiksaan. Pemusnahan orang-orang Rom yang dilakukan oleh Jerman Nazi di negara-negara yang mereka taklukkan berlangsung dengan tidak konsisten.

Di beberapa negara misalnya Luksemburg dan negara-negara Baltik , Nazi membunuh hampir seluruh penduduk Rom. Di negara lain misalnya Denmark dan Yunani , tidak ada catatan mengenai orang Rom yang dijadikan sasaran pembunuhan massal.

Donald Niewyk dan Frances Nicosia menyatakan bahwa korban tewas setidaknya Sebelum dikirim ke kamp-kamp, para korban Romani digiring ke ghetto, termasuk beberapa ratus orang ke Ghetto Warsawa.

Pada bulan Mei , status orang Romani ditempatkan di bawah undang-undang perburuhan dan sosial yang sama seperti orang-orang Yahudi.

Pada tanggal 16 Desember , Heinrich Himmler , Komandan SS dan orang yang dianggap sebagai "arsitek" dari genosida Nazi, [] mengeluarkan sebuah dekret yang menyatakan bahwa "Gypsy Mischlinge keturunan campuran , Romani, dan anggota klan asal Balkan yang tidak memiliki darah Jerman harus dikirim ke Auschwitz, kecuali mereka pernah bertugas di Wehrmacht ".

Tanggal 15 November , Himmler memerintahkan bahwa di daerah Soviet yang diduduki Jerman, " Gipsi yang menetap dan setengah-Gipsi Mischlinge boleh diperlakukan sebagai warga negara.

Sedangkan Gipsi Nomaden lainnya diperlakukan pada tingkat yang sama seperti orang-orang Yahudi dan ditempatkan di kamp-kamp konsentrasi. Jumlah orang kulit hitam di Jerman saat Nazi berkuasa diperkirakan sebanyak 5.

Menurut Museum Memorial Holocaust Amerika Serikat , "nasib orang kulit hitam antara tahun di Jerman Nazi dan negara-negara yang didudukinya diliputi oleh penganiayaan, sterilisasi, eksperimen medis , penahanan, kebrutalan, dan pembunuhan.

Namun, tidak ada kebijakan resmi untuk memusnahkan mereka secara sistematis seperti halnya orang-orang Yahudi dan kelompok lainnya.

Titik awal kami bukanlah individu, dan kami tidak beranggapan bahwa seseorang harus memberi makan yang lapar, memberikan minum kepada yang haus, atau memberikan pakaian kepada yang telanjang, itu bukanlah tujuan kami.

Tujuan kami jelas berbeda: kami harus memiliki orang-orang yang sehat untuk menguasai dunia. Aksi T4 adalah suatu program yang dibentuk pada tahun dengan tujuan untuk menjaga "kemurnian" genetik dari penduduk Jerman dengan membunuh atau mensterilkan warga Jerman dan Austria yang dinilai menderita cacat fisik atau gangguan mental.

Antara tahun dan , sebanyak Georg Renno, direktur dari pusat euthanasia Schloss Hartheim , atau lebih dari Sama dengan orang-orang dengan disabilitas cacat fisik , pengidap dwarfisme juga dianiaya.

Mereka ditempatkan di kandang-kandang dan dijadikan bahan eksperimen oleh Nazi. Program Aksi T4 ini dikepalai oleh Philipp Bouhler , kepala kanselir pribadi Hitler Kanzlei des Führer der NSDAP dan Karl Brandt , dokter pribadi Hitler.

Brandt diadili pada bulan Desember di Nuremberg , bersama dengan 22 orang lainnya dalam pengadilan khusus yang dikenal sebagai United States of America vs.

Karl Brandt et al. Dia digantung di Penjara Landsberg pada tanggal 2 Juni Antara 5. Steakley menyatakan bahwa hal yang penting bagi Nazi untuk menyiksa seseorang adalah berdasarkan "kemungkinan untuk berbuat kriminal dan karakter mereka", bukannya tindak kriminal mereka, dan "gesundes Volksempfinden" sensibilitas sehat dari warga menjadi prinsip normatif dari hukum-hukum Nazi.

Gestapo menggerebek bar-bar gay , kaum homoseksual dilacak melalui buku-buku alamat, melalui daftar pelanggan majalah-majalah gay, dan warga dipaksa untuk melaporkan perilaku homoseksual tetangga atau orang-orang terdekat mereka yang dicurigai.

Puluhan ribu homoseksual dihukum antara tahun hingga dan dikirim ke kamp-kamp untuk "direhabilitasi". Di sana, mereka diidentifikasikan dengan gelang lengan berwarna kuning, [] dan kemudian dengan lencana segitiga merah muda yang dikenakan di sisi kiri jaket atau di kaki kanan celana panjang, dengan tuduhan mengidap kelainan seksual.

Steakley mengungkapkan bahwa penganiayaan terhadap homoseksual ini juga berlanjut setelah perang. Komunis, sosialis dan serikat buruh di Jerman merupakan penentang awal Nazisme, [] dan juga menjadi orang-orang pertama yang dikirim ke kamp- kamp konsentrasi.

Hitler menyatakan bahwa komunisme adalah sebuah ideologi Yahudi, yang disebut oleh Nazi sebagai " Judeo-Bolshevism ".

Ketakutan terhadap agitasi komunis digunakan sebagai pembenaran untuk mengesahkan Enabling Act of , undang-undang yang secara resmi memberikan kekuasaan diktator pada Hitler.

Hitler dan Nazi juga membenci kaum politik kiri Jerman karena perlawanan mereka terhadap rasisme partai. Sebagian besar pemimpin kelompok kiri Jerman adalah orang Yahudi.

Hitler menyebut Marxisme dan " Bolshevisme " sebagai alat bagi "Yahudi internasional" untuk merusak "kemurnian ras" dan kelangsungan hidup bangsa Nordik atau Arya dan untuk mengacaukan kehidupan sosial ekonomi Jerman.

Di dalam kamp-kamp konsentrasi seperti Buchenwald, status komunis Jerman ini lebih diistimewakan dibandingkan dengan orang-orang Yahudi karena "kemurnian ras" mereka.

Setiap kali Nazi menduduki wilayah baru, anggota komunis, sosialis, atau kelompok-kelompok anarkis biasanya akan menjadi orang pertama yang ditahan atau dieksekusi.

Bukti ini ditemukan dalam Commissar Order Hitler, di mana ia memerintahkan untuk mengeksekusi semua komisar politik Soviet yang ditangkap, serta mengeksekusi semua anggota Partai Komunis di wilayah yang dikuasai Jerman.

Dalam Mein Kampf , Hitler menulis bahwa Freemasonry telah "menyerah" kepada orang-orang Yahudi. Karena menolak untuk setia kepada Partai Nazi dan melayani di kemiliteran, sekitar Di kamp-kamp tesebut, mereka diberi pilihan untuk meninggalkan kepercayaan mereka dan tunduk pada otoritas negara.

Antara 2. Dengan suara bulat, di dalam sidang Majelis Umum PBB pada 1 November , ditetapkan bahwa tanggal 27 Januari sebagai "Hari Peringatan Korban Holocaust".

Bahkan sebelum PBB menetapkannya, tanggal 27 Januari telah di tetapkan sebagai Hari Peringatan Korban Holocaust oleh Kerajaan Inggris sejak tahun , sebagaimana halnya di negara-negara lain, mencakup Swedia , Italia , Jerman , Finlandia , Denmark dan Estonia [].

Israel memperingati Yom HaShoah vea Hagvora , "Hari Hari Peringatan Holocaust dan Keberanian Bangsa Yahudi" pada pada hari ke 27 bulan Nisan, bulan Ibrani, yang biasanya jatuh pada bulan April [].

Hari peringatan ini biasanya juga di peringati oleh Yahudi di luar Israel []. Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas.

Ini adalah versi stabil , diperiksa pada tanggal 15 Juli Orang Yahudi Agama Yahudi. Tanakh : Taurat Nevi'im Ketuvim Literatur Rabinik Talmud Mishnah Gemara.

Ashkenazi Sefardim Mizrahi Beta Israel. Penduduk Daftar. Ortodoks Haredi Hasidut Modern Konservatif Reformasi Rekonstruksionis Liberal Karait Humanis.

Ibrani Yiddi Ladino Dzhidi Yudeo-Aram Yudeo-Arab. Kuno Bait Suci Pembuangan Babel Yerusalem Dalam Yudaisme Garis waktu Hasmonean Sanhedrin Skisma Perang Yahudi-Romawi Farisi Diaspora Abad Pertengahan Di bawah Islam Haskalah Hasidim Emansipasi Aliyah Shoah Israel Modern Konflik Persekusi Antisemitisme.

Politik Israel Kiri Yahudi Zionisme Buruh Religius. Daftar isi. Lihat pula: Kamp konsentrasi Nazi. Artikel utama: Eksperimen manusia Nazi.

Lihat pula: Antisemitisme. Lihat pula: Hukum Nuremberg. Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen NSRL Partai Pekerja Jerman Sosialis Nasional NSDAP Geheime Staatspolizei Gestapo Sturmabteilung SA Schutzstaffel SS Pemuda Hitler HJ Liga Perempuan Jerman BDM Liga Wanita Sosialis Nasional NSF.

Garis waktu awal Kenaikan Hitler Machtergreifung Persenjataan Jerman Jerman Nazi Agama di Jerman Nazi Malam Pisau-Pisau Panjang Rapat Nuremberg Pakta Anti-Komintern Kristallnacht Perang Dunia II Pakta Tripartite Holocaust Pengadilan Nuremberg Neo-Nazisme.

Ideologi non-rasial. Fasisme Gleichschaltung Pandangan politik Hitler Mein Kampf Militarisme Program Sosialis Nasional Orde Baru Propaganda Bangsa proletar Aspek religius Politik Sinkretis Wanita di Reich Ketiga.

Ideologi ras. Ras Arya Darah dan tanah Eugenika Reich Jermanik Raya Heim ins Reich Lebensraum Ras utama Kebijakan ras Jerman Nazi Kesetaraan Völkisch.

Solusi Akhir. Kamp konsentrasi Deportasi Pengadilan Dokter Kamp pemusnahan Genosida Ghetto Kamp buruh Percobaan manusia Pogrom Pemisahan ras.

Adolf Hitler Heinrich Himmler Hermann Göring Joseph Goebbels. Luar Jerman. National Socialist Program Mein Kampf The Legal Basis of the Total State The Myth of the Twentieth Century.

Buku karya atau tentang Adolf Hitler Nazi ideologues Pemimpin dan pejabat Partai Nazi Anggota Partai Nazi Mantan anggota Partai Nazi Pidato Adolf Hitler Personil SS.

Topik terkait. Antisemitisme Fasisme Glosarium Jerman Nazi Holocaust Neo-Nazisme Strasserisme Gerakan Völkisch Denazifikasi.

Artikel utama: Kristallnacht. Lihat pula: Rencana Madagaskar. Lihat pula: Invasi Polandia Artikel utama: Rencana Nisko dan Pemerintahan Umum.

Informasi lebih lanjut: Kamp konsentrasi Nazi. Artikel utama: Holocaust di Ukraina , Holocaust di Lithuania , Holocaust di Latvia , Holocaust di Estonia , Holocaust di Belarus , Holocaust di Rusia , Einsatzgruppen , Kuburan massal di Uni Soviet , dan Kejahatan perang Wehrmacht.

Lihat pula: Babi Yar , Pembantaian Rumbula , Pembantaian Kamianets-Podilskyi , dan Pembantaian Ponary. Informasi lebih lanjut: Operasi Reinhard , Konferensi Wannsee dan Solusi Akhir.

Artikel utama: Kamp pemusnahan. Artikel utama: Perlawanan Yahudi selama Holocaust. Artikel utama: Pertempuran Berlin , Kematian Adolf Hitler , Penyerangan Praha , dan Hari Kemenangan di Eropa.

Artikel utama: Generalplan Ost. Informasi lebih lanjut: Kejahatan Nazi terhadap etnis Polandia dan Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen. Artikel utama: Kejahatan Nazi terhadap tawanan perang Soviet.

Artikel utama: Porajmos. Artikel utama: Orang kulit hitam di Jerman Nazi. Artikel utama: Aksi T4 dan Eugenika Nazi.

Artikel utama: Penyiksaan terhadap homoseksual di Jerman Nazi dan Holocaust. Artikel utama: Penyiksaan terhadap Saksi Yehuwa di Jerman Nazi.

Artikel utama: Yom HaShoah. Holocaust di Belarus Holocaust di Kroasia Holocaust di Estonia Holocaust di Prancis Holocaust di Latvia Holocaust di Lithuania Holocaust di Norwegia Holocaust di Polandia Holocaust di Rumania Holocaust di Rusia Holocaust di Serbia Holocaust di Ukraina Holocaust di Uni Soviet.

Artikel utama: Daftar pelaku utama Holocaust. Diskusi umum Dampak Holocaust Dampak Perang Dunia II Denazifikasi Tanggapan hukum Pertanggungjawaban komando Resolusi PBB terhadap genosida Pengadilan Dokter Pengadilan Dora Kejahatan perang Jerman Pengadilan Nuremberg Pengadilan Adolf Eichmann Kejahatan perang Wehrmacht Korban Daftar korban Holocaust Daftar korban dan korban selamat di Auschwitz Korban selamat Daftar korban selamat Holocaust terkenal Daftar korban selamat di Sobibor Sh'erit ha-Pletah Wiedergutmachung Memorial Memorial Holocaust Yom HaShoah Yad Vashem Tanggapan budaya, politik, dan hukum Penelitian Holocaust Teologi Holocaust Holocaust dalam seni dan sastra Penyangkalan Holocaust Kritik terhadap penyangkalan Holocaust Hari Peringatan Korban Holocaust Masalah pertanggungjawaban Pertanggungjawaban Holocaust Pertanggungjawaban komando Daftar pelaku utama Holocaust Historiografi Fungsionalisme versus intensionalisme dan Historikerstreit.

Sumber lainnya Holocaust sumber-sumber. Genosida Armenia Genosida Bosnia Genosida Darfur Genosida Genosida Herero dan Namaqua Holodomor Kejahatan perang Jepang Pembantaian Katyn Maafa Pembunuhan massal di bawah rezim Komunis Genosida Rwanda Ladang Pembunuhan Fotografi Einsatzgruppen Ivanhorod.

The Nazis called this "the final solution to the Jewish question The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust , Columbia University Press, , hlm.

The Germans called this "the final solution to the Jewish question". July 26, Diakses tanggal Hedgepeth; Rochelle G. Saidel 14 December Sexual violence against Jewish women during the Holocaust.

Diakses tanggal 25 January If two million Jewish women were murdered during the Holocaust, sexual molestation was the lot of a few but violence was the lot of the many.

Children of the Holocaust. Capstone Press. More than a million Jewish children were killed. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust , Columbia University Press , , hlm.

Google Books Estimates of the death toll of non-Jewish victims vary by millions, partly because the boundary between death by persecution and death by starvation and other means in a context of total war is unclear.

Overall, about 5. Atlas of the Holocaust , pp. This was in contrast to the five to 11 million 1. Small, Melvin and J. David Singer.

Resort to Arms: International and civil Wars — and Berenbaum, Michael. The Guardian. Niewyk, Francis R. Nicosia, The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust , Columbia University Press, , p.

Feldman, Wolfgang Seibel, Networks of Nazi Persecution: Bureaucracy, Business, and the Organization of the Holocaust , Berghahn Books, p.

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Diakses tanggal 25 September Yad Vashem. Diakses tanggal 24 September June 16, Diakses tanggal July 31, Kementerian Luar Negeri Israel.

Diakses tanggal 21 September The relevant chapter is reprinted in Bartov, Omer , ed. The Holocaust: Origins, Implementation, Aftermath.

London: Routledge. Yahudi Pomeranian ke Oranienburg. For details of the original Schacht Plan, see "Schacht 'ransom' Plan Seen Doomed to Failure; Opposed in Britain".

Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 30 September BBC History. Approaches to Auschwitz edisi ke-2nd. Westminster John Knox Press.

Diakses tanggal April 20, March 30, Holocaust Encyclopedia. Retrieved 27 September Death: The Rise and Fall of Fred A. Leuchter, Jr". Fourth Floor Productions.

Retrieved 23 September Also in Goldensohn, Leon. Nuremberg Interviews , Vintage paperback , p. The hair was then sent to factories, where it was woven into special fittings for gaskets.

He said he had first received the order to do this in For the living conditions of the Sonderkommando , Piper quotes survivor testimony from the trial of Adolf Eichmann.

Diakses tanggal 26 September Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal May 6, January 13, Retrieved 25 September The New York Times.

Retrieved 2 October Retrieved 28 September Leff, see Laurel, Leff. Buried by the Times: The Holocaust and America's Most Important Newspaper.

Cambridge University Press, The original German is: November Im KL Auschwitz II kommen 24 weibliche Häftlinge ums Leben, von denen 13 unmittelbar getötet werden.

According to Krakowski , p. Holocaust: The events and their impact on real people, in conjunction with the USC Shoah Foundation Institute for Visual History and Education.

It lay in archives until first aired on PBS's Frontline on May 7, The film, partly edited by Alfred Hitchcock , can be seen online at Memory of the Camps.

BBC News. The War Against the Jews , Bantam, Estimates are from Polish scholar, Franciszek Piper, the chief historian at Auschwitz.

Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. The USHMM places the scholarly estimates at According to Berenbaum , p.

This number only includes civilians: killed Slovene partisan POW and resistance fighters killed in action are not included their number is estimated to 27, These numbers however include only Slovenes from present-day Slovenia : it does not include Carinthian Slovene victims, nor Slovene victims from areas in present-day Italy and Croatia.

A State of Terror: Germany — Bayside, New York: Holocaust Resource Center and Archives. Based on the play The Deputy by Rolf Hochhuth.

Based on the autobiography by Wladyslaw Szpilman ; won three Academy Awards. The Power of Good. Documentary [7] [8]. Out of the Ashes. Based on the book I Was a Doctor in Auschwitz by Gisella Perl.

Hitler: The Rise of Evil. Christian Duguay. Everything is Illuminated. Based on the book by Jonathan Safran Foer. Richard Wilson. Sophie Scholl - Die letzten Tage.

Der Letzte Zug. Forgiving Dr. Jochen Alexander Freydank. English title: Toyland. Won the Best Live Action Short Film Oscar at the 81st Academy Awards.

Depicts events that unfolded at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp following the liberation of the camp by British troops in April The Counterfeiters.

Based on a memoir written by Adolf Burger ; won the Best Foreign Language Film Oscar at the 80th Academy Awards. The Boy in the Striped Pajamas.

Based on the book by Nechama Tec; nomination for an Academy Award in the category of Best Original Score. Based on the book by Bernhard Schlink Kate Winslet won Academy Award For Best Actress.

Based on the play by Cecil Philip Taylor. English title: The Army of Crime. The film depicts the subject of Porajmos. Inglourious Basterds.

Alternate history war comedy. Nominated for eight Academy Awards. The Courageous Heart of Irena Sendler. Esther's Diary. Features original footage from the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum.

Based on true events and is the first major motion picture to dramatize the expulsion of 3 million Germans from Czechoslovakia.

The Round Up. The Vel' d'Hiv Roundup. A Jewish Girl in Shanghai. Wang Genfa , Zhang Zhenhui. Nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 84th Academy Awards.

Markus Rosenmüller. Based on the true story of Walter Süskind. German TV film. The story of the family Adler living in Berlin, betrayed by Stella Goldschlag murdered in Auschwitz in and three young students moving from Israel to Berlin.

Based on the true story of Paul Grüninger. Won Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film at the 87th Academy Awards. The People vs. Fritz Bauer.

Won Best Original Screenplay at 4th Canadian Screen Awards. Accepted at the Short Film Corner of the 68th Cannes Festival. Won Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film at the 88th Academy Awards ; Winner of the Grand Prix at the Cannes Film Festival ; Winner of the Best Foreign Language Film Category at the 73rd Golden Globe Awards ; Winner of Best International Film at the 31st Independent Spirit Awards.

German television film about Anne Frank , on the view of her father. German cinematographic feature about Anne Frank.

Adaptation of the book Denying the Holocaust. The Zookeeper's Wife. Adaptation of the novel The Zookeeper's Wife.

The Man with the Iron Heart. Un sac de billes. Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck. Follows the efforts of Israeli intelligence officers to capture former SS officer Adolf Eichmann in Features Philippine President Manuel L.

Quezon 's plan to provide refuge for Jews fleeing from Nazi Germany. The Photographer of Mauthausen. Story of Francisco Boix and his covert documentation of life at Mauthausen Concentration Camp.

Adaptation of the novel Transit by Anna Seghers. Inspired by the life of Marcel Marceau. German Concentration Camps Factual Survey.

Long shelved, completed in ; Alfred Hitchcock collaborated on production. English Version of Die Todesmühlen ; excerpted from German Concentration Camps Factual Survey.

Nazi Concentration Camps [9]. Presented as evidence at the Nuremberg trials. Jasenovac [10]. Memory of the Camps [11]. Shorter version of German Concentration Camps Factual Survey ; reconstructed by American PBS series Frontline in The Nuremberg Trials.

Soviet view of the Nuremberg Trials. Nuit et brouillard. English title: Night and Fog. Written by Jean Cayrol , an escapee of Mauthausen.

Music by Hanns Eisler. Donald Brittain and John Spotton. English title: Ordinary Fascism. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich.

Based on William L. Shirer book The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. English title: The Sorrow and the Pity.

Vichy France government collaboration with Nazi Germany during the war. David Bergman, Jacques Ehrlich and Haim Gouri. After World War I — , many Germans did not accept that their country had been defeated.

A stab-in-the-back myth developed, insinuating that disloyal politicians, chiefly Jews and communists, had orchestrated Germany's surrender.

Inflaming the anti-Jewish sentiment was the apparent over-representation of Jews in the leadership of communist revolutionary governments in Europe, such as Ernst Toller , head of a short-lived revolutionary government in Bavaria.

This perception contributed to the canard of Jewish Bolshevism. Early antisemites in the Nazi Party included Dietrich Eckart , publisher of the Völkischer Beobachter , the party's newspaper, and Alfred Rosenberg , who wrote antisemitic articles for it in the s.

Rosenberg's vision of a secretive Jewish conspiracy ruling the world would influence Hitler's views of Jews by making them the driving force behind communism.

Open about his hatred of Jews, he subscribed to common antisemitic stereotypes. He viewed Marxism as a Jewish doctrine, said he was fighting against "Jewish Marxism", and believed that Jews had created communism as part of a conspiracy to destroy Germany.

With the appointment in January of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany and the Nazi's seizure of power , German leaders proclaimed the rebirth of the Volksgemeinschaft "people's community".

Enemies were divided into three groups: the "racial" or "blood" enemies, such as the Jews and Roma; political opponents of Nazism, such as Marxists, liberals, Christians, and the "reactionaries" viewed as wayward "national comrades"; and moral opponents, such as gay men, the work-shy, and habitual criminals.

The latter two groups were to be sent to concentration camps for "re-education", with the aim of eventual absorption into the Volksgemeinschaft. Before and after the March Reichstag elections , the Nazis intensified their campaign of violence against opponents, [65] setting up concentration camps for extrajudicial imprisonment.

Throughout the s, the legal, economic, and social rights of Jews were steadily restricted. Works by Jewish composers, [76] authors, and artists were excluded from publications, performances, and exhibitions.

The Deutsches Ärzteblatt a medical journal reported on 6 April "Germans are to be treated by Germans only.

The economic strain of the Great Depression led Protestant charities and some members of the German medical establishment to advocate compulsory sterilization of the "incurable" mentally and physically disabled, [80] people the Nazis called Lebensunwertes Leben life unworthy of life.

The courts reached a decision in 64, of those cases; 56, were in favor of sterilization. In October Hitler signed a "euthanasia decree" backdated to 1 September that authorized Reichsleiter Philipp Bouhler , the chief of Hitler's Chancellery , and Karl Brandt , Hitler's personal physician, to carry out a program of involuntary euthanasia.

There were also dedicated killing centers, where the deaths were estimated at 20,, according to Georg Renno, deputy director of Schloss Hartheim , one of the euthanasia centers, or ,, according to Frank Zeireis, commandant of the Mauthausen concentration camp.

Although not ordered to take part, psychiatrists and many psychiatric institutions were involved in the planning and carrying out of Aktion T4.

The German neuroscientist Julius Hallervorden received brains from one hospital between and "I accepted these brains of course.

Where they came from and how they came to me was really none of my business. On 15 September , the Reichstag passed the Reich Citizenship Law and the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor, known as the Nuremberg Laws.

The former said that only those of "German or kindred blood" could be citizens. Anyone with three or more Jewish grandparents was classified as a Jew.

Although other European countries—Bulgaria, Independent State of Croatia, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Slovakia, and Vichy France—passed similar legislation, [96] Gerlach notes that "Nazi Germany adopted more nationwide anti-Jewish laws and regulations about 1, than any other state.

By the end of , 50, German Jews had left Germany, [99] and by the end of , approximately half the German Jewish population had left, [] among them the conductor Bruno Walter , who fled after being told that the hall of the Berlin Philharmonic would be burned down if he conducted a concert there.

On 12 March , Germany annexed Austria. Austrian Nazis broke into Jewish shops, stole from Jewish homes and businesses, and forced Jews to perform humiliating acts such as scrubbing the streets or cleaning toilets.

About , Austrian Jews had left the country by May , including Sigmund Freud and his family, who moved to London. On 7 November , Herschel Grynszpan , a Polish Jew, shot the German diplomat Ernst vom Rath in the German Embassy in Paris, in retaliation for the expulsion of his parents and siblings from Germany.

The government claimed it was spontaneous, but in fact it had been ordered and planned by Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels , although with no clear goals, according to David Cesarani.

The result, he writes, was "murder, rape, looting, destruction of property, and terror on an unprecedented scale". Known as Kristallnacht or "Night of Broken Glass" , the attacks on 9—10 November were partly carried out by the SS and SA , [] but ordinary Germans joined in.

In some areas, the violence began before the SS or SA had arrived. Groups of Jews were forced by the crowd to watch their synagogs burn; in Bensheim they were made to dance around it, and in Laupheim to kneel before it.

The Times of London stated on 11 November No foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults upon defenseless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday.

Either the German authorities were a party to this outbreak or their powers over public order and a hooligan minority are not what they are proudly claimed to be.

Between 9 and 16 November, 30, Jews were sent to the Buchenwald , Dachau , and Sachsenhausen concentration camps. Insurance payments for damage to their property were confiscated by the government.

A decree on 12 November barred Jews from most remaining occupations. Before World War II, Germany considered mass deportation from Europe of German, and later European, Jewry.

The pre-war Jewish population of Poland was 3. The rest of Poland was occupied by the Soviet Union , which invaded Poland from the east on 17 September The Wehrmacht was accompanied by seven SS Einsatzgruppen "special task forces" and an Einsatzkommando , numbering 3, men, whose role was to deal with "all anti-German elements in hostile country behind the troops in combat".

There, the Jews were concentrated in ghettos in major cities, [] chosen for their railway lines to facilitate later deportation. Instead, they were viewed as part of a policy of creating a territorial reservation to contain them.

The Germans stipulated that each ghetto be led by a Judenrat of 24 male Jews, [] who were responsible for its day-to-day operations and for facilitating deportations to extermination camps.

There had been anti-Jewish pogroms in Poland before the war, including in around towns between and , [] and again in According to Hayes, dealers in currency and jewellery set up shop outside the Treblinka extermination camp near Warsaw in —, as did prostitutes.

Germany invaded Norway and Denmark on 9 April , during Operation Weserübung. Denmark was overrun so quickly that there was no time for a resistance to form.

Consequently, the Danish government stayed in power and the Germans found it easier to work through it. Because of this, few measures were taken against the Danish Jews before From Germany they were sent by freight train to Auschwitz.

According to Dan Stone , only nine survived the war. In May , Germany invaded the Netherlands , Luxembourg , Belgium , and France. After Belgium's surrender, the country was ruled by a German military governor, Alexander von Falkenhausen , who enacted anti-Jewish measures against its 90, Jews, many of them refugees from Germany or Eastern Europe.

Jews were forced out of their jobs and had to register with the government. In February , non-Jewish Dutch citizens staged a strike in protest that was quickly crushed.

Most were sent to Auschwitz ; the first transport of 1, Jews left Holland for Auschwitz on 15 July France had approximately , Jews, divided between the German-occupied north and the unoccupied collaborationist southern areas in Vichy France named after the town Vichy.

The occupied regions were under the control of a military governor, and there, anti-Jewish measures were not enacted as quickly as they were in the Vichy-controlled areas.

The fall of France gave rise to the Madagascar Plan in the summer of , when French Madagascar in Southeast Africa became the focus of discussions about deporting all European Jews there; it was thought that the area's harsh living conditions would hasten deaths.

Yugoslavia and Greece were invaded in April and surrendered before the end of the month. Germany and Italy divided Greece into occupation zones but did not eliminate it as a country.

The pre-war Greek Jewish population had been between 72,—77, By the end of the war, some 10, remained, representing the lowest survival rate in the Balkans.

The rest of the country was divided into the Independent State of Croatia , nominally an ally of Germany, and Serbia , which was governed by a combination of military and police administrators.

One difference between the Germans and Croatians was that the Ustashe allowed its Jewish and Serbian victims to convert to Catholicism so they could escape death.

Germany invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June , a day Timothy Snyder called "one of the most significant days in the history of Europe As German troops advanced, the mass shooting of "anti-German elements" was assigned, as in Poland, to the Einsatzgruppen , this time under the command of Reinhard Heydrich.

Einsatzgruppe A arrived in the Baltic states Estonia , Latvia , and Lithuania with Army Group North ; Einsatzgruppe B in Belarus with Army Group Center ; Einsatzgruppe C in the Ukraine with Army Group South ; and Einsatzgruppe D went further south into Ukraine with the 11th Army.

By the end of the war, they had killed around two million, including about 1. According to Wolfram Wette , the Germany army took part in these shootings as bystanders, photographers, and active shooters.

To justify their troops' involvement, army commanders would describe the victims as "hostages", "bandits" and "partisans".

In Lithuania, Latvia and western Ukraine, locals were deeply involved; Latvian and Lithuanian units participated in the murder of Jews in Belarus, and in the south, Ukrainians killed about 24, Jews.

Some Ukrainians went to Poland to serve as guards in the camps. Typically, victims would undress and give up their valuables before lining up beside a ditch to be shot, or they would be forced to climb into the ditch, lie on a lower layer of corpses, and wait to be killed.

At first the Einsatzgruppen targeted the male Jewish intelligentsia, defined as male Jews aged 15—60 who had worked for the state and in certain professions the commandos would describe them as "Bolshevist functionaries" and similar , but from August they began to murder women and children too.

All Jews must be shot. Drive the female Jews into the swamps. Notable massacres include the July Ponary massacre near Vilnius Soviet Lithuania , in which Einsatgruppe B and Lithuanian collaborators shot 72, Jews and 8, non-Jewish Lithuanians and Poles.

The total killed there could be as high as , Historians agree that there was a "gradual radicalization" between the spring and autumn of of what Longerich calls Germany's Judenpolitik , but they disagree about whether a decision— Führerentscheidung Führer's decision —to murder the European Jews had been made at this point.

Instead it was a question of "a process of increasingly radical interpretations of orders". Germany first used concentration camps as places of terror and unlawful incarceration of political opponents.

After , the economic function of the camps, previously secondary to their penal and terror functions, came to the fore.

Forced labor of camp prisoners became commonplace. Transportation to and between camps was often carried out in closed freight cars with little air or water, long delays and prisoners packed tightly.

Red signified a political prisoner, Jehovah's Witnesses had purple triangles, "asocials" and criminals wore black and green, and gay men wore pink.

According to Dan Stone , the murder of Jews in Romania was "essentially an independent undertaking".

Jews were forced from government service, pogroms were carried out, and by March all Jews had lost their jobs and had their property confiscated.

Bulgaria introduced anti-Jewish measures between and , which included a curfew, the requirement to wear a yellow star, restrictions on owning telephones or radios, the banning of mixed marriages except for Jews who had converted to Christianity , and the registration of property.

All 11, Jews from the annexed territories were sent to their deaths, and plans were made to deport an additional 6,—8, Bulgarian Jews from Sofia to meet the quota.

Stone writes that Slovakia, led by Roman Catholic priest Jozef Tiso president of the Slovak State , — , was "one of the most loyal of the collaborationist regimes".

It deported 7, Jews in on its own initiative; introduced anti-Jewish measures in ; and by the autumn of had deported around 60, Jews to ghettos and concentration camps in Poland.

Another 2, were deported and 2, killed that autumn during an uprising, and 13, were deported between October and March Although Hungary expelled Jews who were not citizens from its newly annexed lands in , it did not deport most of its Jews [] until the German invasion of Hungary in March Between 15 May and early July , , Jews were deported from Hungary, mostly to Auschwitz, where most of them were gassed; there were four transports a day, each carrying 3, people.

So many died that the marches were stopped. Italy introduced antisemitic measures, but there was less antisemitism there than in Germany, and Italian-occupied countries were generally safer for Jews than those occupied by Germany.

In Finland, the government was pressured in to hand over its — non-Finnish Jews to Germany. After opposition from both the government and public, eight non-Finnish Jews were deported in late ; only one survived the war.

Jews in Shanghai were confined, but despite German pressure they were not killed. On 7 December , Japanese aircraft attacked Pearl Harbor , an American naval base in Honolulu , Hawaii, killing 2, Americans.

The following day, the United States declared war on Japan , and on 11 December, Germany declared war on the United States.

When America declared war, he blamed the Jews. Nearly three years earlier, on 30 January , Hitler had told the Reichstag : "if the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will be not the Bolshevising of the earth, and thus a victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!

On that day, Hitler gave a speech in his apartment at the Reich Chancellery to senior Nazi Party leaders: the Reichsleiter and the Gauleiter. Regarding the Jewish question, the Führer is determined to clear the table.

He warned the Jews that if they were to cause another world war, it would lead to their destruction. Those were not empty words.

Now the world war has come. The destruction of the Jews must be its necessary consequence. We cannot be sentimental about it. Christopher Browning argues that Hitler gave no order during the Reich Chancellery meeting but made clear that he had intended his warning to the Jews to be taken literally, and he signaled to party leaders that they could give appropriate orders to others.

Four days after Hitler's meeting with party leaders, Hans Frank , Governor-General of the General Government area of occupied Poland, who was at the meeting, spoke to district governors: "We must put an end to the Jews I will in principle proceed only on the assumption that they will disappear.

They must go. Browning interprets this as a meeting to discuss how to justify and speak about the killing. A month later, invitations were sent out again, this time for 20 January.

The 15 men present at Wannsee included Adolf Eichmann head of Jewish affairs for the RSHA , Heinrich Müller head of the Gestapo , and other SS and party leaders.

Copy no. Discussing plans for a " final solution to the Jewish question " " Endlösung der Judenfrage " , and a "final solution to the Jewish question in Europe" " Endlösung der europäischen Judenfrage " , [] the conference was held to share information and responsibility, to coordinate efforts and policies " Parallelisierung der Linienführung " , and to ensure that authority rested with Heydrich.

There was discussion about whether to include the German Mischlinge half-Jews. Under proper guidance, in the course of the Final Solution, the Jews are to be allocated for appropriate labor in the East.

Able-bodied Jews, separated according to sex, will be taken in large work columns to these areas for work on roads, in the course of which action doubtless a large portion will be eliminated by natural causes.

The possible final remnant will, since it will undoubtedly consist of the most resistant portion, have to be treated accordingly because it is the product of natural selection and would, if released, act as the seed of a new Jewish revival.

See the experience of history. In the course of the practical execution of the Final Solution, Europe will be combed through from west to east.

Germany proper, including the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia , will have to be handled first due to the housing problem and additional social and political necessities.

The evacuated Jews will first be sent, group by group, to so-called transit ghettos, from which they will be transported to the East.

These evacuations were regarded as provisional or "temporary solutions" " Ausweichmöglichkeiten ". According to Longerich, "the Jews were to be annihilated by a combination of forced labour and mass murder.

At the end of in occupied Poland, the Germans began building additional camps or expanding existing ones. Auschwitz , for example, was expanded in October by building Auschwitz II-Birkenau a few kilometers away.

Christian Gerlach writes that over three million Jews were murdered in , the year that "marked the peak" of the mass murder. To prevent panic, they were told the gas chambers were showers or delousing chambers.

At Auschwitz, after the chambers were filled, the doors were shut and pellets of Zyklon-B were dropped into the chambers through vents, [] releasing toxic prussic acid.

In early , new gas chambers and crematoria were built to accommodate the numbers. At Treblinka, to calm the victims, the arrival platform was made to look like a train station, complete with fake clock.

There was almost no resistance in the ghettos in Poland until the end of The best known is the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in April , when the Germans arrived to send the remaining inhabitants to extermination camps.

From behind the screen of smoke and fire, in which the ranks of fighting Jewish partisans are dying, the legend of the exceptional fighting qualities of the Germans is being undermined.

The fighting Jews have won for us what is most important: the truth about the weakness of the Germans.

During a revolt in Treblinka on 2 August , inmates killed five or six guards and set fire to camp buildings; several managed to escape. According to Yitzhak Arad , this was the highest number of SS officers killed in a single revolt.

Estimates of Jewish participation in partisan units throughout Europe range from 20, to , According to Timothy Snyder, "more Jews fought in the Warsaw Uprising of August than in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of April The Polish government-in-exile in London learned about the extermination camp at Auschwitz from the Polish leadership in Warsaw , who from "received a continual flow of information" about the camp, according to historian Michael Fleming.

An inmate until he escaped in April , his mission was to set up a resistance movement ZOW , prepare to take over the camp, and smuggle out information.

On 6 January , the Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs, Vyacheslav Molotov , sent out diplomatic notes about German atrocities.

These were based on reports about mass graves and bodies surfacing in areas the Red Army had liberated, as well as witness reports from German-occupied areas.

His report, known by his pseudonym as the Grojanowski Report , had reached London by June There are different methods of execution. Prisoners condemned to death by the Gestapo are murdered by the first two methods.

Winston Churchill received it, and Anthony Eden presented it to the British cabinet. On 17 December , 11 Allies issued the Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations condemning the "bestial policy of cold-blooded extermination".

The British and American governments were reluctant to publicize the intelligence they had received. A BBC Hungarian Service memo, written by Carlile Macartney , said in "We shouldn't mention the Jews at all.

According to Saul Friedländer , "[t]estimonies left by Jews from all over occupied Europe indicate that, in contradistinction to vast segments of surrounding society, the victims did not understand what was ultimately in store for them.

The SS liquidated most of the Jewish ghettos of the General Government area of Poland in — and shipped their populations to the camps for extermination.

By it was evident to the armed forces leadership that Germany was losing the war. As the Soviet armed forces advanced, the SS closed down the camps in eastern Poland and tried to conceal what had happened.

The gas chambers were dismantled, the crematoria dynamited, and the mass graves dug up and corpses cremated. Some went by truck or wagons; others were marched the entire distance.

Those who lagged behind or fell were shot. The first major camp encountered by Allied troops, Majdanek , was discovered by the advancing Soviets, along with its gas chambers, on 25 July The British 11th Armoured Division found around 60, prisoners 90 percent Jews when they liberated Bergen-Belsen, [] [] as well as 13, unburied corpses; another 10, people died from typhus or malnutrition over the following weeks.

Here over an acre of ground lay dead and dying people. You could not see which was which. The living lay with their heads against the corpses and around them moved the awful, ghostly procession of emaciated, aimless people, with nothing to do and with no hope of life, unable to move out of your way, unable to look at the terrible sights around them Babies had been born here, tiny wizened things that could not live.

A mother, driven mad, screamed at a British sentry to give her milk for her child, and thrust the tiny mite into his arms. He opened the bundle and found the baby had been dead for days.

This day at Belsen was the most horrible of my life. The Jews killed represented around one third of world Jewry [] and about two-thirds of European Jewry, based on a pre-war estimate of 9.

The death camps in occupied Poland accounted for half the Jews killed. Death rates were heavily dependent on the survival of European states willing to protect their Jewish citizens.

The continuous presence of state institutions thereby prevented the Jewish communities' complete destruction. The survival of Jews in countries where states were not destroyed demonstrates the "crucial" influence of non-Germans governments and others , according to Christian Gerlach.

Almost all Jews in German-occupied Poland, Baltic states and the USSR were killed, with a 5 percent chance of survival on average.

The Nazis regarded the Slavs as Untermenschen. Hitler made clear that Polish workers were to be kept in what Robert Gellately called a "permanent condition of inferiority".

He wanted to restrict non-Germans in the conquered territories to an elementary-school education that would teach them how to write their names, count up to , work hard, and obey Germans.

Others died in massacres or in uprisings such as the Warsaw Uprising , where ,—, were killed. German communists, socialists and trade unionists were among the earliest opponents of the Nazis [] and among the first to be sent to concentration camps.

Around , gay men were arrested in Germany and 50, jailed between and ; 5,—15, are thought to have been sent to concentration camps, where they were identified by a pink triangle on their camp clothes.

The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals held after the war by the Allies in Nuremberg , Germany, to prosecute the German leadership.

The first was the — trial of 22 political and military leaders before the International Military Tribunal. The indictments were for participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of a crime against peace ; planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression and other crimes against peace; war crimes ; and crimes against humanity.

The tribunal passed judgements ranging from acquittal to death by hanging. Ribbentrop, the judgement declared, "played an important part in Hitler's 'final solution of the Jewish question'".

The subsequent Nuremberg trials , —, tried another defendants. In Mossad agents captured Adolf Eichmann in Argentina and brought him to Israel to stand trial on 15 indictments, including war crimes, crimes against humanity, and crimes against the Jewish people.

He was convicted in December and executed in June Eichmann's trial and death revived interest in war criminals and the Holocaust in general.

Israelis were divided about the idea of taking money from Germany. Companies such as BMW , Deutsche Bank , Ford , Opel , Siemens , and Volkswagen faced lawsuits for their use of forced labor during the war.

In the early decades of Holocaust studies , scholars approached the Holocaust as a genocide unique in its reach and specificity.

Ernst Nolte triggered the Historikerstreit in June with an article in the conservative newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung : "The past that will not pass: A speech that could be written but no longer delivered.

Comparing Auschwitz to the Gulag , he suggested that the Holocaust was a response to Hitler's fear of the Soviet Union: "Did the Gulag Archipelago not precede Auschwitz?

Was the Bolshevik murder of an entire class not the logical and factual prius of the 'racial murder' of National Socialism? Was Auschwitz perhaps rooted in a past that would not pass?

Nolte's arguments were viewed as an attempt to normalize the Holocaust. Richard J. Evans argued in Thus although the Nazi "Final Solution" was one genocide among many, it had features that made it stand out from all the rest as well.

Unlike all the others it was bounded neither by space nor by time. It was launched not against a local or regional obstacle, but at a world-enemy seen as operating on a global scale.

It was set in motion by ideologues who saw world history in racial terms. It was, in part, carried out by industrial methods.

These things all make it unique. In September an online CNN — ComRes poll of 7, adults in seven European countries—Austria, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Poland, and Sweden—found that one in 20 had never heard of the Holocaust.

The figure included one in five people in France aged 18—

Free Solo finden Sie den kompletten berblick ber Holocaust Filme TV-Programm an Halloween Holocaust Filme. - Navigationsmenü

Der insgesamt siebenstündige Film erzählt anhand Bollywood Filme Stream Deutsch Ask fiktiven jüdischen Familie Weiss die Geschichte der Judenverfolgung und -vernichtung zwischen und
Holocaust Filme Die Liste von Filmen zum Holocaust umfasst Dokumentarfilme, Historienfilme, Spielfilme und Fernsehfilme sowie Serien zum Holocaust, zu darauf bezogenen​. Die Kategorie Holocaust-Film führt Filme aller Art auf, in denen der Holocaust Thema ist oder vom Holocaust betroffene oder daran beteiligte Personen eine. Entdecke die besten Filme - Holocaust: Schindlers Liste, Der Pianist, Das Leben ist schön, Der Marathon-Mann, Shoah, Alles ist erleuchtet - Nichts ist normal. Entdecke die besten Filme ab 12 Jahre - Holocaust: Schindlers Liste, Der Pianist, Shoah, Alles ist erleuchtet - Nichts ist normal, Der Vorleser. Ein kompletter Abriss der Geschichte des Holocaustfilms ist genauso wenig Bestandteil dieser Arbeit wie eine vollständige Analyse der Debatte Luxor Kino Schindlers Liste. Drama von Peter Kassovitz mit Robin Williams und Hannah Taylor-Gordon. Schicksalsdrama 1.

Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail

Dieser Beitrag hat 1 Kommentare

  1. Tular

    Welche nötige Wörter... Toll, die ausgezeichnete Phrase

Schreibe einen Kommentar